Ring rhymes on Thing

Stone circle in Mala

One of the things that connect Scandinavian iron-age burial culture with that of the Wisła/Vistula river mouth, and therefor the Wielbark archeological culture, is the stone circles — graves which, according to Scandinavian tradition, were used as thing-sites and judicial courts: called domarringar ‘judges’ rings’. They are circular formations of an odd number of raised or boulder-shaped stones, typically located on a hill ca 100 m from a watercourse.

Do they hold a mystery for us?
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What connects prophets with roundabout dogs?

Maybe you aren’t fully acquainted with the phenomenon of roundabout dogs. It is a statue of a dog, which somebody places in a roundabout, usually without applying for permission. It has been particularly common in Sweden, though it looks like it is mostly Scanians and x:th generation immigrants who do this, perhaps to make Swedish society feel less cold.

Typical roundabout dog

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Psalm 28-29 in Scanian

For fun, let’s translate David’s psalm for the last day of the Tabernacle feast into Scanian. Here it is:

1. Gai Jehowâ, ni gudasöner;
Gai Jehowâ er hai o bravâd!
2. Gai Jehowâ hans namnets hai;
tilbai Jehowâ i hans hailia sâl!

3. Herrens kall øver vannen, Gud Haili dauna, Herre øver många vann.
4. Herrens kall i førsvâr; Herrens kall i ammelihait.
5. Herrens kall kærvar caider o Herren kærvar Libanons caidrar,
6. får dem att vaja som en Libanaisisk tjur, o Sirion som af ainhørninga ætt.

7. Herrens kall e reivande ilds låga.
8. Herrens kall ryster ørken; Herren ryster aiden Kwadesh.
9. Herrens kall swarvar hindar o barkaflænger lund o i hans tempel snackar alla haider.

10. Jehowâ uppehåller sig i inflödet
o Jehowâ sitter kung i aiwena.
11. Jehowâ ger manke åt sitt folk.
Jehowâ bringar sitt folk fred.

As far as I know (C. ambrosiana O 39 sup.), Origenes kept the Name of G-d in verses 1-3, but not in the other places. Recognizing the “Call of the Lord”-pattern of verses 3-5 and 7-9, and since we have the advantage of digital editing (it’s more frustrating when you see the pattern after you have written the line on super-expensive parchment), it seems reasonable to keep HaShem in every verse except the ones with the call.
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Gudja or Gudji

In Luke 1:5 Wulfila.be’s text reads “… gudja namin Zakarias …”. Doesn’t it look like it should be “… gudji namin Zakarias …”, however? (They do note that the text is ‘partially normalized’.)

Benzelius also transcribes “gudji”. In other places this /i/ occurs in the words gudjinon ‘serve as priest’ a few verses later in Luke, and gudjinassus ‘priestly office’ at Luke 1:9 and 2 Corinthians 9:12. So this might be another split word which I couldn’t find by searching digitized texts. On the other hand, the difference between gudja and gudji is so slight that a scribe might well use the form he or she is used to.

In A Comparative Germanic Grammar Eduard Prokosch (or perhaps his editor Bolling) sums up the underlying grammar nicely:

In Germanic all ā-stems are feminines, but elsewhere also masculines occur, denoting types of human beings, e.g., L. scrība, poeta, agricola, OSl. sluga ‘servant’, vojevoda ‘army leader’, Gk. νεανίας ‘youth’.
B. jā-Stems.
In Germanic, we find the endings -jā and -ī. Gothic and Old Norse use the former with short stems, the latter with long stems: Go. banja ‘wound’, sibja ‘relationship’, halja ‘hell’, but bandi ‘band’, þiudan-gardi ‘kingdom’, þūsundi ‘thousand’ […]

Balg suggests the word formation as: “from stem of guþs and suff. -jan”. He gives the gender as masculine. Are there any more Gothic masculine words ending in -a? Yesh!

aba ‘husband’ (Irregular in the plural, according to Lambdin 6.1 (p20))
abba ‘father’
afdrugkja ‘drunkard’
aha ‘mind’
ahma ‘spirit’
aiwaggelista ‘evangelist’ (Balg: from L. evangelista)
aldoma ‘old age’ (Only occurring in Luke chapter 1)
allawaurstwa ‘one who works with all his might, perfect’ (Only occurring in Colossians 4:12)
ara ‘eagle’ (Only occurring in Luke 17:37)
atta ‘father’
bandja ‘one being bound’
… and so on.

Lambdin notes for weak nouns that -n remains in all cases and numbers except nominative, so they would have, originally, had stems ending in -n.

I’d point out that aba, abba and atta might be onomatopoetic, originally used by a small child not knowing about cases, and that the case endings for weak nouns contain sequences with prepositional character, namely -in and -an, with the sense of ‘in’ and ‘against/on’, thus expressing the functions of the dative and accusative cases respectively.

Nom: atta
Dat: attin
Acc: attan

Well, well.

In Luke 15:25, the prodigal son’s brother “qimands atiddja neƕ razn”. Me thinks a continental Goth would say and write “qimands atiddja neƕa razn”. What do you think?

How to write Wulfilan script in LaTeX

The Gothic script used in codices Argenteus and Ambrosianus is encoded with more than 24 bits in Unicode/UTF-8. We say they are in the “Second half-pane”. Almost everything else of merit gets encoded with less than 24 bits, so software makers sometimes implements UTF-8 only up to 24 bits and hope that language minorities, who want to use characters above the limit, will be imprisoned for hate speech before reaching their office.

For LaTeX, I have tested only with XeTeX and TextEdit on Mac. We will use the fontspec library. We will also need a Wulfilan typeface as *.otf or *.ttf. We can place a copy in the catalogue where we have the .tex-file.
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List of common expressions that differ between Scanian and Sweonic

S = axato (reliable indicator of which dialect)
H = historic difference – the dominating form set in red.
E = blog author was taught in school that the stricken form is “grammatically” wrong.

English Scanian Sweonic
S in the past förr förut
S more (adverb) mer mera
S nowadays nu för tiden numera
S of av utav
S our vår (m,f)/ vårt (n) våran (u) / vårat (n)
S your er (m,f)/ ert (n) eran (u)/ erat (n)
H Where do we go? Var går vi? Vart går vi?
H here, there här, där hära, dära
H it seems like det verkar som om det verkar som att
H both bägge båda
E inside inne i inuti
E one each vars en varsin
on/upon på [pu] på/uppå/å
allthough även om även fast
since/because eftersom eftersom att
even (comparative) än/etter allt
back (adverb) tebaks/tillbaks tillbaka
-s (feminine plural) -or [ɔʁ] -er [ɛr]
turn on (imperative) sätt på slå på
from below underfrån underifrån
based (up)on baserat på utifrån
down ner ned
Why?/How so? Varför det? Varför då?
yet än ännu
S start sentence with
“Yes but..” or “No but ..”
strictly never often, as do Danes:
“Ja men ..”, “Nej men ..”
repetition with pronoun:
“this thing, it burns”
almost never
exception: lyrics
start sentence with
“So, ..”
happens: “Så, ..” never

Scanian expressions have been normalized to Swedish orthography.

Self determination and health

Just a brief note, as I haven’t yet reached certainty about some things I hope to write about in the future.

I was reading some literature about Scanian food-culture, books by Nils-Arvid Bringéus and Bo Swensson, and articles in the magazine Svenska Landsmål ock Svenskt Folkliv (Transl: Swedish Land-lects (or perhaps Regiolects) and Swedish Ethnology), kindly provided in PDF on-line by the government agency ISOF.

It looks like Scanian food-culture has been altered into its diametrical opposite over the last 300 years. So whereas old recipes often have the form of: mix two or three ingredients plus a herb, today’s food culture mixes a long list of ingredients plus sugar. Since ingredients are digested at different paces, when many of them get mixed, some of them will feed pathogens instead of feeding us.
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More almighty tradition

After having written a post about how revisers and translators have sneaked glosses into two texts to make God out as almighty, I thought I would leave that subject as I am not really interested in challenging the idea that he is. A Catechism of The Roman Catholic Church was delivered to me and I opened it on page 100 in order to learn as much as possible about Roman catholicism within a short time. The subject, beginning on page 99, was: “The Almighty”…

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