3. The Copper Snake
3. The Copper Snake
Maybe you aren’t fully acquainted with the phenomenon of roundabout dogs. It is a statue of a dog, which somebody places in a roundabout, usually without applying for permission. It has been particularly common in Sweden, though it looks like it is mostly Scanians and x:th generation immigrants who do this, perhaps to make Swedish society feel less cold.
For fun, let’s translate David’s psalm for the last day of the Tabernacle feast into Scanian. Here it is:
1. Gai Jehowâ, ni gudasöner;
Gai Jehowâ er hai o bravâd!
2. Gai Jehowâ hans namnets hai;
tilbai Jehowâ i hans hailia sâl!
3. Herrens kall øver vannen, Gud Haili dauna, Herre øver många vann.
4. Herrens kall i førsvâr; Herrens kall i ammelihait.
5. Herrens kall kærvar caider o Herren kærvar Libanons caidrar,
6. får dem att vaja som en Libanaisisk tjur, o Sirion som af ainhørninga ætt.
7. Herrens kall e reivande ilds låga.
8. Herrens kall ryster ørken; Herren ryster aiden Kwadesh.
9. Herrens kall swarvar hindar o barkaflænger lund o i hans tempel snackar alla haider.
10. Jehowâ uppehåller sig i inflödet
o Jehowâ sitter kung i aiwena.
11. Jehowâ ger manke åt sitt folk.
Jehowâ bringar sitt folk fred.
As far as I know (C. ambrosiana O 39 sup.), Origenes kept the Name of G-d in verses 1-3, but not in the other places. Recognizing the “Call of the Lord”-pattern of verses 3-5 and 7-9, and since we have the advantage of digital editing (it’s more frustrating when you see the pattern after you have written the line on super-expensive parchment), it seems reasonable to keep HaShem in every verse except the ones with the call.
In Luke 1:5 Wulfila.be’s text reads “… gudja namin Zakarias …”. Doesn’t it look like it should be “… gudji namin Zakarias …”, however? (They do note that the text is ‘partially normalized’.)
Benzelius also transcribes “gudji”. In other places this /i/ occurs in the words gudjinon ‘serve as priest’ a few verses later in Luke, and gudjinassus ‘priestly office’ at Luke 1:9 and 2 Corinthians 9:12. So this might be another split word which I couldn’t find by searching digitized texts. On the other hand, the difference between gudja and gudji is so slight that a scribe might well use the form he or she is used to.
In A Comparative Germanic Grammar Eduard Prokosch (or perhaps his editor Bolling) sums up the underlying grammar nicely:
In Germanic all ā-stems are feminines, but elsewhere also masculines occur, denoting types of human beings, e.g., L. scrība, poeta, agricola, OSl. sluga ‘servant’, vojevoda ‘army leader’, Gk. νεανίας ‘youth’.
In Germanic, we find the endings -jā and -ī. Gothic and Old Norse use the former with short stems, the latter with long stems: Go. banja ‘wound’, sibja ‘relationship’, halja ‘hell’, but bandi ‘band’, þiudan-gardi ‘kingdom’, þūsundi ‘thousand’ […]
Balg suggests the word formation as: “from stem of guþs and suff. -jan”. He gives the gender as masculine. Are there any more Gothic masculine words ending in -a? Yesh!
aba ‘husband’ (Irregular in the plural, according to Lambdin 6.1 (p20))
aiwaggelista ‘evangelist’ (Balg: from L. evangelista)
aldoma ‘old age’ (Only occurring in Luke chapter 1)
allawaurstwa ‘one who works with all his might, perfect’ (Only occurring in Colossians 4:12)
ara ‘eagle’ (Only occurring in Luke 17:37)
bandja ‘one being bound’
… and so on.
Lambdin notes for weak nouns that -n remains in all cases and numbers except nominative, so they would have, originally, had stems ending in -n.
I’d point out that aba, abba and atta might be onomatopoetic, originally used by a small child not knowing about cases, and that the case endings for weak nouns contain sequences with prepositional character, namely -in and -an, with the sense of ‘in’ and ‘against/on’, thus expressing the functions of the dative and accusative cases respectively.
In Luke 15:25, the prodigal son’s brother “qimands atiddja neƕ razn”. Me thinks a continental Goth would say and write “qimands atiddja neƕa razn”. What do you think?
It’s Easter-time again, so let’s look at some gospel passages.
The Gothic script used in codices Argenteus and Ambrosianus is encoded with more than 24 bits in Unicode/UTF-8. We say they are in the “Second half-pane”. Almost everything else of merit gets encoded with less than 24 bits, so software makers sometimes implements UTF-8 only up to 24 bits and hope that language minorities, who want to use characters above the limit, will be imprisoned for hate speech before reaching their office.
For LaTeX, I have tested only with XeTeX and TextEdit on Mac. We will use the fontspec library. We will also need a Wulfilan typeface as *.otf or *.ttf. We can place a copy in the catalogue where we have the .tex-file.
S = axato (reliable indicator of which dialect) br>
H = historic difference – the dominating form set in red. br>
E = blog author was taught in school that the stricken form is “grammatically” wrong. br>
Scanian expressions have been normalized to Swedish orthography.
Just a brief note, as I haven’t yet reached certainty about some things I hope to write about in the future.
I was reading some literature about Scanian food-culture, books by Nils-Arvid Bringéus and Bo Swensson, and articles in the magazine Svenska Landsmål ock Svenskt Folkliv (Transl: Swedish Land-lects (or perhaps Regiolects) and Swedish Ethnology), kindly provided in PDF on-line by the government agency ISOF.
It looks like Scanian food-culture has been altered into its diametrical opposite over the last 300 years. So whereas old recipes often have the form of: mix two or three ingredients plus a herb, today’s food culture mixes a long list of ingredients plus sugar. Since ingredients are digested at different paces, when many of them get mixed, some of them will feed pathogens instead of feeding us.
After having written a post about how revisers and translators have sneaked glosses into two texts to make God out as almighty, I thought I would leave that subject as I am not really interested in challenging the idea that he is. A Catechism of The Roman Catholic Church was delivered to me and I opened it on page 100 in order to learn as much as possible about Roman catholicism within a short time. The subject, beginning on page 99, was: “The Almighty”…
It is a well known rhetoric tactic to either pretend that you are bad at convincing people or to pretend that your opponent in a discussion would be very good at convincing people. It sounds like a honest acknowledgement of his or her skill, but is really intended to make the audience suspicious towards their arguments and premises.
This tactic applies on a large scale as well, except in war-time when people, organizations and empires want to appear powerful in order to get a psychological advantage. Holy scripture has survived many wars. It is perhaps more difficult for it to survive peace. In this article, let us look at two examples of when God has been described as “almighty” in the scripture of the Christians.