Gothic synonyms: Sunno and sauil

Where the Greek text typically has 峒ノ晃刮肯, Gothic has:

1. sunno (f) ‘sun’ – Matthew 5:45; Luke 4:40; Ephesians 4:26; Nehemiah 7:3.
2. sunno (n) ‘sunshine weather’ – Mark 4:6; 16:2.
3. sauil (n) ‘sun’ – Mark 1:32; 13:24.

Sunno has connections with Old English sunne and OHG sunna, according to Balg’s dictionary. Sauil has similar forms in Old English, Old Norse and Latin sol. It is difficult to say from etymology which form is more likely original and which would be later, however since sunno appears rather often, 6 times versus 2 for sauil, if one form is later it is probably the rarer one.

Another possible Nordic+English connection appears in the variant utgaggan vs more usual usgaggan. Utgaggan with t appears in two places: Mark 7:15 and John 10:9. Out is still called ‘ut‘ in Swedish and ‘ud‘ in Danish.

蠂蠋蟻伪 ‘land, region, district’ gets translated with:

1. gawi (n) Matthew 8:28; Mark 6:55; Luke 4:14; 8:26; 15:14,15.
2. land (n) Mark 5:1, 10; Luke 2:8; 3:1; 4:37; 15:13; 19:12.

Land is pangermanic. Gawi has connections with Old High German. However, based on which verses it occurs in, if one of them is late it would probably be gawi. This is a bit subjective and circular, so I will mark it as speculative.

In the next article, it is time to summarize this and compare it to a reconstruction of Marcion’s text of Luke’s gospel. I should say few things about the method first.

Apart from the words treated so far, I examined these words, where I could find no pattern or hint from which to argue for the lateness or originality of it:

terrify: gaisjan vs geisnan
apostle: apaustaulus vs apaustulus
to help: hilpan vs ni镁an
disease: sauhts vs siukei
joy: swegni镁a vs *swigni镁a
father: fadar vs atta
hiding place: filigri vs filegri
high(est): auhuma/auhumist vs hauhs/hauhista
kingdom: 镁iudinassus vs 镁iudangardi
rich: gabigs vs gabeigs

I searched for orthographic patterns, such as spelling with ‘au’ rather than ‘u’, synonyms occurring in verses with known variations in manuscripts and synonyms where one word occurs in particular biblical books such as the letters to Timothy, Titus and Philemon, that weren’t part of Marcion’s edition. The study was far from exhaustive, so it can be improved upon.

One comment

  1. Mark 1:32 (featuring sauil) is a parallel passage to Luke 4:40 (sunno). Luke 4:40-41 are btw attested as relatively safe in Marcion’s version.

    I read in Weiland Wilker’s commentary on Mark, page 43, about the Greek word used in Mark (but not in Luke):

    “峒斘聪呄兾滴 does not appear in the Greek Bible. It’s the modern Greek form, though.
    Either 峒斘聪 is a conformation to LXX usage or 峒斘聪呄兾滴 is a change to the more contemporary form.
    The support for 峒斘聪呄兾滴 is not coherent.”

    This means if we apply my method to the Greek language version, we get the same result for this verse as for the Gothic, that is, if codices Vaticanus and Bezae (who read 峒斘聪呄兾滴) are right, the language of this verse indicate a later authorship- or translation date than its parallel account in Luke.

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